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Citrus macroptera commonly called “Melanesian papeda”,[1] “wild orange”,[2] “cabuyao” or “satkara”[3] is a semi-wild species of citrus native to Malesia and Melanesia.[2]


Citrus macroptera is so-named because of the large “wings” (-ptera) on the petiole, which is as large as the blade of the leaf.[2] The tree, which has thorns, can reach 5 m in height. Its fruit is about 6–7 cm in diameter, has a fairly smooth, moderately thick rind, and is yellow when ripe. The pulp of the fruit is greenish yellow and dry (does not produce much juice). The juice is very sour, and somewhat bitter.[2]


The species is sometimes divided into four varieties, or alternatively into three separate species, as follows:[4]

  • C. macroptera var. macroptera
  • C. macroptera var. annamensisTanaka -> C. combaraRaf.
  • C. macroptera var. combara (Raf.) Tanaka -> C. combaraRaf.
  • C. macroptera var. kerriiSwingle -> C. kerrii (Swingle) Tanaka


A cultivar of C. macroptera var. annamensis known as ‘Sat Kara’,[5] is grown primarily in the Sylhet Division of northeastern Bangladesh where it is called “hatkora” or “shatkora” (Sylheti: ꠢꠣꠔ꠆ꠇꠞ Bengali: সাতকরা).


Culinary uses

In Bangladesh the rind of the Citrus Macroptera is eaten as a vegetable, while the pulp is usually discarded because of its bitter-sour taste. It has a unique taste and aroma. The thick rind is cut into small pieces and cooked; either green or ripe, in beef, mutton, and fish curries, as well as in stews. The fruit is also a primary ingredient in satkora/shatkora pickles. Curries cooked with shatkora and beef or mutton is now served in many Bangladeshi/Indian restaurants in the UK. A beef shatkora dish cooked by local chefs in Bangladesh is featured in the British chef Rick Stein’s cookery programme Rick Stein’s Far Eastern Odyssey (in Episode 6), which was broadcast by the BBC on 20 August 2009.

Medicinal uses

This plant is used medicinally locally in Assam.[5]


Many of the C. macroptera var. annamensis fruits are exported from Bangladesh, exacting a high price because their oil is used in the perfume industry.[5]

Written on June 8th, 2012 , Fruits Tags:

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