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Over 7,500 cultivars of the apple are known.[1] The following is a list of the more common and important cultivars, with the year and place of origin (where documented), and whether the apples each produces are for cooking, for eating, or for making cider.

Table apples

Commom name Origin First developed Comment Use
Adams Pearmain England, United Kingdom 1826 A dessert apple. Similar flavour to Russet, first introduced under the name “Norfolk Pippin”. Eating
Aia Ilu Estonia 1946 Apple is large in size, weighing 250–300 g. It is yellow, juicy, and bittersweet with a weak aroma. Eating
Airlie Red Flesh (Hidden Rose, Aerlie’s Red Flesh) Airlie, Oregon, United States 1970 (apx.) A large, conic apple. Light yellow-green skin strewn with white dots, occasionally with a faint red-orange blush. Light pink flesh is crisp, sweet and mildly tart. Eating
Akane Japan 1970 Jonathan × Worcester Pearmain. Tangy taste. Eating
Åkerö Sweden 15th c. (approx.) Apple is egg-shaped, medium to large in size, sweet and aromatic. Best in November, keeps well till February. Oldest cultivar in Northern Europe, grown mostly in Sweden and Estonia. Eating
Alkmene Germany, Europa 1930 Cox’s Orange Pippin × Doktor Oldenburg Eating
Allington Pippin Lincolnshire, England, United Kingdom 1880s A versatile English dessert apple raised by horticulturalist Thomas Laxton some time before 1884. Exhibited as Brown’s South Lincoln Beauty, the name was changed to Allington Pippin by Bunyard Nursury in 1896. A cross of Cox’s Orange Pippin and King of the Pippins. A small apple, aromatic, with a pineapple-like flavour, keeps its shape when cooked. Eating, Cooking, Dessert
Ambrosia British Columbia, Canada 1980s Medium to large in size, mostly red coloration with yellow patches. Has cream-coloured flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Ambrosia trees are hardy and no major disadvantages have yet been identified. Eating
Anna Israel 1965 Colour is yellow with a red blush. This variety does not grow well in the cold and prefers heat and humidity. Eating
Annurca Campania, Italy 1876 (documented) Very old apple; possibly one of the oldest of all. Believed to be older than first mention in Pasquale’s Manuale di Arboricultura, 1876. Believed to be the apple depicted in frescoes at ruins of Herculaneum and mentioned in Pliny the Elder’s Naturalis Historia. Eating
Antonovka Kursk, Russia 17th c. A very old Russian variety, often planted at dachas. Apples are large, yellow-green and bracingly tart to eat out of hand, but superb for cooking, as they keep their shape. Extremely tolerant of cold weather, and because it produces a single, deep taproot (unusual among apple trees), Antonovka is propagated for use as a rootstock. Antonovka rootstock provides a cold-hardy (to -45°C), well-anchored, vigorous, standard-sized tree. Cooking, Cider
Ariane Angers, France 2002 Scab resistant. Developed at the National Institute of Agricultural Research in France. Eating
Arkansas Black Arkansas, United States 1870 (apx.) Hard and crunchy; stores well. Very deep red, appearing black from a distance. Eating
Ashmead’s Kernel England, United Kingdom 1700 (apx.) Small, very sweet and very tart. Eating
Aurora Golden Gala British Columbia, Canada 2003 Dessert apple; medium size, sweet, juicy, crisp, firm, very long storage life. Eating
Bailey New York, United States 1840 (apx.) Red apple with considerable white flecks. Has some russeting. Eating
Baldwin Massachusetts, United States 1740 (apx.) Sweet to subacid flavour. Also known as “Woodpecker”. Very old variety for North America. Makes lots of juice. Cooking, Eating
Ballyfatten Ballyfatten, County Tyrone, Northern Ireland 1740 (apx.) A large, round apple with firm, dry, sweet, slightly tart white flesh. Excellent keeper. Scab and canker resistant. Cooking, Eating
Beacon Minnesota, United States 1936 Lively, juicy flavour; good for baking. Does not keep very well. Cooking, Eating
Beauty of Bath England, United Kingdom 1864 Deep red flush and streaks of red with a little russet. Early maturing but short season. Formerly grown commercially in England for local markets. Good flavour in its home climate if it is eaten soon after picking. Poor flavour if distributed long distances and stored for weeks, so now rare. Eating
Belle de Boskoop Boskoop, Netherlands 1856 Bright red, fairly large, early in season (end of August to early September). Cooking (applesauce)
Ben Davis Southeastern United States Noted for keeping well prior to refrigerated storage, but flavour has been compared with cork. Eating
Beverly Hills California, United States 1997 Slightly tart flavour. Likes warm weather. Eating
Bismarck Victoria (Australia) 1870 Medium sized fruit with a green and red skin, sharp in flavour and not a common apple. Cooking
Blenheim Orange England, United Kingdom 1740 (apx.) Has greenish-yellow to orange skin streaked with red. Distinctive nutty flavour excellent for cooking. The vigorous tree is slow to come into crop but then produces heavily. Cooking, Eating
Bloody Ploughman Carse of Gowrie, Scotland 1800 (apx.) A medium-sized, very dark red, heavily ribbed apple. Crisp, mildly sweet white flesh, sometimes pink-streaked. It is reputed to have got its name from a ploughman who was caught stealing apples near Megginch Castle and was shot by the gamekeeper. His wife got the bag of apples and threw them on the compost heap where a seedling then grew and – voila – Bloody Ploughman. Eating
Bottle Greening Green Mountains, United States 1800 (apx.) Produces large fruit. Has thick skin, but juicy. Eating, Cider
Braeburn New Zealand 1952 Chance seedling. Dense apple, and becoming increasingly popular in the UK. Eating
Bramley Nottinghamshire, England, United Kingdom 1809 One of the UK’s most popular apples. Green coloration. Works extremely well in British puddings and apple crumbles. Cooking
Breedon Pippin England 1801 Sweet flavour. Originally raised by a parson in Berkshire. Rare. Eating
Brina Italy 1998 Resistant to scab. Spreading habit with intermediate vigour; full flowering season is medium-late, production is heavy, fruit is medium or medium-large, with smooth skin; white lenticels, no russet, excellent taste characteristics. Ripens first week of October (Trentino). Eating
Byfleet Seedling England
Calville Blanc d’hiver France 1598 Noted for unusual looks (somewhat lumpy on the side) but excellent reward when tried. Noted for having unusually high vitamin C content. Apple of choice for tarte tatin in France. Cooking
Cameo Washington, United States 1980s Existence owed to freak accidental crossing of two most popular apples in world: Red and Golden Delicious. Retains prongs on bottom of latter parent but has flavour more resembling Golden. Eating
Carolina Red June Tennessee, United States 1810 (apx.) Has unusual habit of blossoming twice, and producing two crops per year. Very popular Civil-War-era Southern apple. Does beautifully in humid weather. Good choice for backyard gardener in subtropical climate. Cooking, Eating
Carroll 1947 Ripens early. Eating
Carter’s Blue Alabama, United States 1840s (apx.) Medium to large, roundish oblate; skin green or greenish yellow washed with dull red with darker red broken tripes, covered with a heavy bluish bloom. Crisp, juicy, sugary, aromatic, mild subacid. Foliage also has a blue hue. Ripens September and keeps until November Alabama Once widely grown in the American South, then thought extinct. Reintroduced to America in 1994 after being discovered at the National Fruit Trust in Kent England, where it had been added in 1947 from a collection in Rhone, France, after it had been acquired around 1860 from the Fruitland Nursery in Augusta, Georgia.[2] Eating, Cooking
Catshead England, United Kingdom 1600 (apx.) Sharp flavour. Lumpy shape and electric green colouring. Known to have been a variety planted in early Virginia by settlers as well as native England. Extremely rare in native UK; occasionally still found growing in southern US. Cooking
Charles Ross Berkshire, England 1890 (apx.) Has been an AGM winner. Orange to red. Best cooked early in season. Good flavour, and sweet when eaten later in season. Multi-purpose
Chelmsford Wonder Essex, England 1870 (apx.) A large long keeping yellow-skinned apple with diffuse orange pink flush. [1]. Still grown in Essex orchards including Lathcoats Farm Shop. Multi-purpose
Chiver’s Delight Histon, Cambridgeshire 1920 (apx.) Medium to large oblate apple. Red flush over greenish yellow skin. Crisp, juicy, sweet white flesh. Flavour can be variable but at its best is very well balanced. Grown by Chivers (now a brand of Premier Foods) for apple sauce. Multi-purpose
Cornish Gilliflower Cornwall, England 1813 Discovered as accidental seedling. Shy bearer. Eating
Cortland New York, United States 1890s Pale crisp flesh. Ripens in October in state of origin. Classic red coloration, nice crunch. Eating
Court Pendu Plat France 1613 Extremely old variety, may date from as early as Roman times. Popular during the Victorian era. Yellow to light green, flushed with red. Eating
Cox’s Orange Pippin United Kingdom 1829 Mainly grown in UK, but also grown for export in NZ. Extremely popular apple in Europe. Eating
Cripps Pink (‘Pink Lady’) Australia 1970s Crisp, very sweet and slightly tart. Light red, pink and light yellow-green striped skin. Cooking, Eating
Crispin Japan 1930 See Mutsu Eating
Criterion New York, United States 1898 One of parents believed to be Ben Davis, but very tart unlike parent. Dark red skin underlaid with stripes. Cooking, Eating
D’Arcy Spice Tolleshunt D’Arcy, Essex, United Kingdom 1785 A medium-sized apple with yellow-green skin, a red blush where exposed to the sun and covered with an spotty ochre russet. White flesh is aromatic, firm and crisp with noticeable hints of anise and clove. Eating
Delblush France Delbard 1979 Tentation delblush
, Golden Delicious x Grifer
Eating
Delcorf France Delbard 1960 Delbarestivale delcorf,
Golden Delicious × Stark Jonagrimes
Eating
Delfloga France Delbard 2008 Delbardivine delfloga,
Royal Gala Tenroy x Florina, scab resistant
Eating
Delflopion France Delbard Eating
Delrouval France Delbard 1995 Cybèle delrouval,
Delcorf × Akane
Eating
Deltana France Delbard 2010 Delbard Celeste deltana,
(Golden Delicious × Grive Rouge) × Florina, scab resistant
Eating
Devonshire Quarreden England, United Kingdom (France?) 1685 (documented) Possible French parentage or ancestry. Crimson red peel. Juicy. Eating
Discovery Essex, England, United Kingdom 1949 Possibly from an open-pollinated Worcester Pearmain, or could well be a Worcester × Beauty of Bath. Sharp flavour. Eating
Dorsett Golden Bahamas 1964 Grown from chance seedling of Golden Delicious. One of the most southerly apples grown in North America. Eating
Duchess of Oldenburg Russia 18th c. Has red stripes with splashes of green. Excellent resistance to freezing temperatures. Cooking, Eating
Dudley Winter Castle Hill, Maine 19th c. A medium-sized oblate apple with greenish-yellow skin covered with red stripes over a solid red blush. Flesh is firm but tender, juicy, aromatic and quite tart, becoming milder as it ages. Good for fresh eating and cooking; rated by many as one of the best for apple pies and sauces. Tree is a natural semi-dwarf, very hardy and bears heavily annually. Cooking, Eating
Dumelow’s Seedling Shackerstone, Leicestershire, England 18th c. Large, roundish-oblate apple with pale greenish-yellow skin strewn with large russet dots, occasionally covered with a delicate pinkish-orange blush. Yellow-tinted white flesh is aromatic, firm, crisp, tart, and very juicy. One of the most widely grown culinary apples of Victorian England, esteemed for its fine flavour and good keeping qualities. Cooking
Egle Lithuania Eating
Early Victoria Essex England, United Kingdom 1899 (introduced) Possibly from Lord Grosvenor × Keswick Cod. Also called Emmeth Early. Ripens in late July. Pale yellow fruit. Eating
Edward VII Worcestershire, England, United Kingdom 1908 (introduced) A large oblate-round apples with yellow-green skin and pinkish-brown blush. White flesh is sharp and pleasant. Extraordinary keeper; apple ripens in autumn and will keep until Easter. Possibly Blenheim Orange × Golden Noble. Cooking
Egremont Russet Sussex, England 1872 Brown russeting, excellent keeper. Eating
Ein Shemer Israel 1963 Zabidani × Golden Delicious. This variety ripens in June. Tastes tart, does not do well in cold weather. Eating
Ellison’s Orange Lincolnshire, England, United Kingdom 1911 Cox’s Orange Pippin × Calville Blanc. Eating
Elstar Netherlands 1950s Golden Delicious × Ingrid Marie. Medium-sized, mostly red with yellow showing. Often used in desserts due to its sweet flavour. Cooking, Eating
Empire New York, United States 1966 Lovely white subacid flesh. Tangy taste. Ruby red colour. Eating
Enterprise Illinois, United States 1993 Classic North American red apple. Stores well up to six months. Makes very good candy apple. Eating
Envy New Zealand 2009 Sweet and crispy, takes 4–8 hours after cutting to start browning. Royal Gala × Braeburn. Eating
Epicure United Kingdom 1909 Yellowish apple with reddish blush. Good clean taste. Eating
Esopus Spitzenburg Esopus, New York, United States mid 18th c. Grown by Thomas Jefferson at Monticello. Named for creek near which first seedling found. Heirloom variety still available at farmstands in Northeast and portions of Virginia. Difficult to grow for inexperienced planters. Cooking, Eating
Fiesta Kent. England, United Kingdom 1972 Sometimes called Red Pippin. Claims both UK and US heritage: parents are Cox’s Orange and Idared. Has flavour similar to the former but storage, colouring, and cold tolerance of the latter. Eating
Fireside Minnesota, United States 1943 Very fragrant. Yellow with red striping. Sweet apple, very popular in upper Midwest. Eating
Florina Anger, France (Querina), scab resistant Eating
Flower of Kent Kent, England, United Kingdom 18th c. This is the variety that inspired Sir Isaac Newton to consider gravity. Eating
Fortune 1904 Cox’s Orange Pippin × Wealthy Eating
Fuji Japan 1930s Red Delicious × Ralls Genet. Dark red, conic apple. Sweet, crisp, dense flesh is very mildly flavoured. Keeps very well. One of the most widely grown apple varieties in the world. Eating
Gala New Zealand 1970s A small to medium-sized conic apple. Thin, tannic skin is yellow-green with a red blush overlaid with reddish-orange streaks. Flesh is yellowish-white, crisp and grainy with a mild flavour. Cross of three of the world’s best known apples: Kidds Orange Red (a cross of Red Delicious and Cox’s Orange Pippin) × Golden Delicious. Eating
Garden Royal Sudbury, Massachusetts, US 1800s A medium-sized roundish-oblate, sometimes slightly conical apple. Greenish-yellow skin is striped and splashed with bright red, dull or grayish toward the stem; dots few, light and gray; cavity deep, basin shallow, slightly uneven. Flesh yellow, very tender, juicy, rich, mildly subacid and aromatic. Poor keeper. Upright habit, productive bearer, some biennial tendency. Eating
George Cave Essex, England, United Kingdom 1923 Pale green-yellow fruit with red flush. Early harvest. Eating
George Neal Kent, England, United Kingdom 1904 Received Award of Merit from R.H.S. in 1924. Pale green to yellow colour, will keep nicely until late autumn. Cooking
Glockenapfel Switzerland 17th. c. A medium-sized green-yellow elongate bell-shaped apple, sometimes takes on a reddish blush. Tart and juicy, stores well, taste improves with age. Excellent culinary variety; renown for its use in Strudel. Cooking, Eating
Gloster Germany 1969 Conical shape. Somewhat tart, ruby red colour like parent Red Delicious. Good choice for backyard gardening. Eating
Ginger Gold Virginia, United States 1960s Tangy flavour, crunchy texture, pale green-yellow colour. Noted for being an extremely early bearer (Europe by September 1, California late July, Eastern US in August). Cooking, Eating
Golden Delicious Clay County, West Virginia, United States 1914 One of the most popular varieties in the world. Light green-yellow coloration, very sweet. Poor choice for baking. Eating
Golden Noble England, United Kingdom 1820 Tree is short and stocky. Produces mint green fruit with blush of pink. Eating
Golden Orange Italy 1979
released 1996
PRI 1956-6 × Ed Gould Golden. Resistant to scab. Moderate vigour, spreading habit and medium-late blooming season; fruit is moderately large (207 g) and symmetric, skin is smooth, no russeting. Ripens some days after Golden Delicious; fruit is very attractive; large, good storage ability. Eating
Golden Russet New York, United States 1845 (documented) A medium-sized heavily russeted light green apple, occasionally with a reddish blush. Crisp, fine-grained flesh is rich, sugary and very sweet. Excellent desert apple, keeps very well. Makes extraordinary cider, known as the “Champagne of cider apples.” Cider, Eating
Golden Spire United Kingdom, Lancashire 1850 An old Northern English variety. Unusually tall and oblong with a tart flavour. Cider, Eating
Gragg (aka Red Gragg, Winter Queen) North Carolina, United States 1860 Originated on the farm of James Gragg in Caldwell County, NC about 1860. Valued by North Carolina growers for its fine cooking qualities, crispness and long storage ability. The conical shaped fruit is red in color with moderately conspicuous dots. Ripens in October and is a great keeper. Cooking, Eating
Granny Smith Australia 1868 This is the apple once used to represent Apple Records. Also noted as common pie apple. Lime green colouring. Extremely tart. Cooking, Eating
Gravenstein Gråsten, Jutland, Denmark 17th c. A medium-sized early yellow-green apple, often with red stripes. Crisp, sweet, tart flavour. Exceptional cooking apple, especially for applesauce and pies. Poor keeper; becomes soft quickly. German immigrants introduced this variety to California’s San Joaquin Valley in the mid-19th century. Has many sports. Cooking, Eating
Green Cheese North Carolina or Georgia, United States 18th c. A very old southern apple thought to have originated in North Carolina or Georgia but its true origin is uncertain. The fruit is medium to large, oblate to oblique in shape. The skin is deep green in colour, turning pale yellow when fully ripe. The yellowish flesh is sweet, crisp, tender and juicy. Eating
Greensleeves Kent, England, United Kingdom 1966 Golden Delicious × James Grieve; good garden apple, with a pleasant but unexceptional flavour. Likely named for famous Renaissance era song. Eating
Grenadier England, United Kingdom 1862 (documented) Possibly one of the weirdest of all British apples: it is ribbed and lumpy with a tough coat, looking as though it has taken a beating. Grenadier cooks down to cream-colored puree with a superb apple flavour. Makes an excellent apple jam. Poor keeper. Reliably heavy annual bearer. Cooking
Grimes Golden Brooke County, Virginia (now West Virginia), United States 1804 A medium-sized roundish to slightly oblong apple. Greenish-yellow skin, ripening to a clear yellow, stem cavity sometimes russeted, covered with yellow or russet dots. The yellowish-white flesh is crisp and tender, with a rich, spicy, sugary-sweet flavour. A good all-purpose dessert and cooking apple, Grimes also makes a strong single-variety cider. Excellent keeper. Grimes Golden is the parent of the ubiquitous Golden Delicious. Relatively rare among apples, Grimes Golden is self-fertile. Original tree discovered near a known orchard of John Chapman (Johnny Appleseed). Cider, Cooking, Eating
Haralson Minnesota, United States 1923 Red colour and large, moderately conspicuous dots. Crisp and juicy with a tart flavour. Excellent choice for pies. Cooking, Eating
Harrison Cider Apple New Jersey, United States 1770 Yellow skin, sometimes red-blush, black spots, small size, sweet, rich and dry. Cooking, Cider
Hawaii 1945 (introduced) Noted for pineapple-like taste. Eating
Heyer 12 Very cold-tolerant. Eating
Honeycrisp Minnesota, United States 1960 Has excellent eating and keeping qualities. Mottled red and yellow colour. Very crisp white flesh is slightly tart with a strong honey-like sweetness. Quality varies from apple to apple. Developed by the University of Minnesota and best suited to cool climates. Eating
Honeygold Minnesota, United States 1969 Sweet tasting fruit. Tree has very showy, light pink blossoms in spring. Eating
Howgate Wonder Isle of Wight, United Kingdom 1960 Usually a big apple. Makes a lot of juice. Cooking
Idared Moscow, Idaho, United States 1942 A medium-sized deep red apple. Crisp white flesh is tart and juicy, and can be somewhat bland if eaten out of hand, however, Idared is an exceptional cooking apple. Flesh keeps is shape, and the flavour becomes much stronger with cooking. An excellent keeping apple, Idared remains hardy and durable in proper storage for as long as 8 months. Idared is a cross between Jonathan and Wagener developed at the University of Idaho. Cooking
Irish Peach Kilkenny, Ireland 19th c. Apple excellent for baking. Early harvest. More difficult to find within land of origin due to primary use for export to UK. Hardy, tastes very good straight off tree. Cooking, Eating
James Grieve Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom 1893 Good taste, but poor keeper (bruises easily). Cooking, Eating
Jazz New Zealand 2007 (launched) Bright red round apple with subtle yellow under-striping. Tart to sweet, dense and very crunchy with effervescent texture. From sweet Royal Gala × firm, tart Braeburn. Eating
Jonagold New York, United States 1968 Popular in Europe and land of origin. A very large apple. Several highly coloured strains are available. Eating, Cooking
Jonathan New York, United States 1820s Tart taste. Mostly red apple with patches of lime green. Does well in cooler areas; some frost resistance. Cooking (Pie), Eating
Junaluska North Carolina, United States 1815 (apx.) Once thought to be extinct but rediscovered in 2001 in rural North Carolina. Native American origin. Named for Cherokee chief Junaluska, leader in Battle of Horseshoe Bend, believed to have planted original tree. Extremely russeted and ugly apple but very hardy tree with superior taste to commercial varieties. Cooking, Cider, Eating
Jupiter North Carolina, United States 1815 (apx.) A large, round, slightly conic apple. Light yellow-green skin with a red-orange blush and stripes. Strong apple flavour is well-balanced between sweet and sharp. Cross of Cox’s Orange Pippin and Starking Delicious (a sport of Red Delicious), apple retains Cox’s flavour, but tree is easier to grow. Eating
Kanzi Belgium 1991 Gala × Braeburn. Crunchy, juicy, sweet, slightly tangier than Gala. Eating
Karmijn de Sonnaville Wageningen, Netherlands 1949 Yellow ground colour when ripe, with red flush, and russet depending on the season. Large apple, though shape can be irregular. Cooking (Apple Juice), Eating
Katy Sweden 1947 Medium-sized early eating apple with red skin and pale cream flesh. Well suited to Northern European climate. Eating
Kerry Pippin County Antrim, Ireland 1805 (apx.) Pale to golden yellow flesh. Delightful spicy taste. Well suited to Ireland’s moist, cool climate. Eating
Kidd’s Orange Red New Zealand 1924 Cox’s Orange Pippin × Delicious. Yellow skin with orange red flush. Chewy rather than crunchy. Eating
King United States Eating
Knobbed Russet Sussex, England, United Kingdom 1819 Green and yellow, with rough and black russet. Unusually irregular, warty and knobbly surface. Cider, Eating
Lady Alice Gleed, Washington, United States 1978 Medium-sized, roundish oblate with thin yellow-green skin with an orange blush and bright red stripes. Crisp yellowish-white flesh is sweet with hints of honey and almond. Don Emmons purchased a neglected orchard of Red Delicious near Gleed, Washington in 1978. While cultivating between trees, a disc from the plow hit the base of a tree. The injury caused a new shoot to grow from the rootstock (likely a seedling grown from a pip). The shoot was allowed to grow and bear fruit which Mr. Emmons named for his mother, Alice.[3]
Lane’s Prince Albert England, United Kingdom 1841 Green with orange blush. Makes a good apple crumble for Christmas: peak ripening happens in winter. Cooking
Laxton’s Superb England, United Kingdom 1897 Wyken Pippin × Cox’s Orange Pippin. Classic old Victorian, British apple. Green with dull red flush. Firm texture, but not very good juice producer. Eating
Liberty New York, United States 1978 Very disease-resistant. Very similar appearance to McIntosh, relatively short storage life in air. Eating
Limelight Kent, England, United Kingdom 2000 Greensleeves type; abundant cropping and a compact tree. A pale green apple with a smooth finish and occasional pink blush. Crisp flesh and disease resistant tree. Eating
Lodi Ohio, United States 1911 Fruit pale yellow flushed with deeper yellow. Resistant to scab. Tangy taste. Eating
Lord Derby Cheshire, England, United States 1850 (apx.) Yellowish green apple. Acid flavour, likes cooler weather. Cooking
Lord Lambourne England, United Kingdom 1921 James Grieve × Worcester Pearmain. Round shape. Orange flush with hint of russet. Strong acid flavour. Tree good for backyard gardeners. Eating
Macoun New York, United States 1923 Cold-tolerant. Crunchy. Does very well in salads. Eating
Maiden’s Blush Burlington, New Jersey, New Jersey, United States 19th c. A thin-skinned, flattened apple. Pale yellow-green skin has a telltale crimson blush on the side that faced the sun. White flesh is crisp with a sharp flavour that mellows with storage. Heavy annual bearer. Good cooker. Excellent variety for drying because the flesh remains white and bright. Cooking, Eating
Malinda Vermont, United States 1860 Small, conical with sheep’s nose; deep, rich yellow with red spots possible. Dry, dense, substantive flesh; mild, pear-like flavour. Tree good in climates with heavy snowfall. Cooking, Eating
Mantet Manitoba, Canada 1929 (introduced) Amber fruit washed with red. Summer apple. Does not do well in warm climates. Eating
Margil London, England 1750s Small, highly-flavored apple held in very high esteem by connoisseurs. Medium to small in size, slightly conical in shape, dull green skin with an orange-red blush, some russeting. The yellow flesh is firm, crisp, sugary, and as pomologist Robert Hogg said, “with a powerful and delicious aromatic flavour.” The very small tree is weak and slender and bears light crops. Because it flowers early, it is susceptible to frost damage. It keeps well. Introduced to Brompton Park Nursury from Versailles by Henry Wise in the early 18th century. Eating
May Queen Worcester, Worcestershire, United Kingdom 1800s Large, oblate, often russetted yellow apple with bright red blush and stripes. Crisp, greenish-yellow flesh, rich, nutty flavour. Similar texture to Ribston Pippin, and in a good year, its equal in flavour. In bad years it can be rather dry and harsh. Excellent keeper. Heavy annual bearer. Eating
McIntosh Ontario, Canada 1811 A popular, cold-tolerant eating apple in North America. Cooking (applesauce), Eating
Melrose Ohio, United States 1944 Flavour improves in storage. Coarse flesh. Eating
Merton Worcester England, United Kingdom 1956 Cox’s Orange Pippin × Worcester Pearmain. Developed at John Innes Institute. Eating
Miller’s Seedling Berkshire, England, United Kingdom 1848 Sweet apple. Tree prefers chalky soils. Eating
Mollie’s Delicious New Jersey, United States 1966 Conical shape, pinkish red colour. Lasts long in refrigeration. Good aftertaste. Eating
Mother (American Mother) Massachusetts, United States 1840 Mother/American Mother is a medium-sized yellow apple with crimson stripes and darker red blush. White flesh is rich, sweet and juicy. The fruit has a balsamic aroma with a suggestion of vanilla. Cropping can be a bit irregular, if not completely biennial. A late flowering variety that avoids frost. Some resistance to scab. Eating
Muscadet de Dieppe Normandy, France 1750 (apx.) Commonly used in making Calvados liquor. Cider
Mutsu Aomori Prefecture, Japan 1930 Known as “Crispin” in the UK. Golden Delicious × Indo. Eating
My Jewel Watsonville, California, United States 1940 (apx.) Delicious banana-flavoured apple originating in Watsonville, California, as a chance seedling. Eating, Cooking, Cider
Newtown Pippin (Albemarle Pippin) Queens County, New York, United States 1759 Best known colonial apple in North America. Known favourite of Ben Franklin and Thomas Jefferson. Also known as “Albemarle Pippin”. Medium to large, often irregularly shaped apple. Greenish-yellow, dotted, often russeted. Tough skin, flesh cream to greenish-white, very quickly browning. Texture is crisp, moderately fine-grained subacid to tart, sprightly. Biennial habit, slow to come into bearing. Good keeper, improves with storage. Prized for its clear juice in cider making. Two sports, Green Newtown Pippin and Yellow Newtown Pippin, differ only in skin colour. Cooking, Eating, Cider
Newton Wonder England, United Kingdom 1870s Very good cooker. Prolific bearer, can be harvested in winter. Cooking
Nickajack North Carolina, United States 1810 (apx.) Native American origin, believed to be originally grown by Cherokee along banks of Nickajack Creek. Only grown in Appalachians, favourite of later settlers for desserts. Rusty red colour with sweet, crisp taste. Cooking, Eating
Norfolk Royal England 1850 (apx) Crisp, sharply sweet and well-flavoured. Available as a russet or smooth. Eating
Northern Spy New York, United States 1800 (apx.) Tart, firm, stores very well. Noted for being excellent choice for making American-style apple pie. Sometimes used as a rootstock. Cider, Cooking, Eating
Orin Japan 1952 Sweet and distinctive fragrance. Notes of pineapple. Medium hardness. Golden Delicious × Indo. Eating
Orleans Reinette Orleans, France 1776 Reliable bearer. Extraordinary complex flavor, similar to Blenheim Orange, but not related. Eating
Ozark Gold Missouri, United States 1970 Light green with pink blush. Has taste with notes of honey. Eating
Pacific Rose New Zealand 1995 Extremely crisp, sweet apple. Also grows well in California. Eating
Pam’s Delight Bedfordshire, England, United Kingdom 1958 Pam’s Delight is a medium-sized apple with a red blush. Flesh is crisp, juicy and sweet-tasting. Alfred Hull, a retired clerk planted some apple pips in pots which he placed on his bathroom windowsill. He planted the most vigorous in his garden. His daughter, Pam, teased her father by telling him that he should dig the tree up as it did not look as if it was capable of producing fruit. Unfortunately, Pam developed Hodgkin’s Disease, and Alfred told her that if his tree, which had become a family joke, ever bore fruit she would be the recipient of the first apple. Seven years after he planted the pip, the tree produced its first blossom, and from that, a single apple. He proudly presented it to Pam that October. Sadly, her illness became more severe, and she died, at the age of 28 the following April, just as the tree blossomed fully for the first time. That year the tree produced twenty two pounds of apples. In 1968, Brogdale Farm accepted Pam’s Delight for full commercial trials. Later that year it was included in the National Register.[4] As of 2011, Pam’s Delight is available from East of England Apples and Orchard Group. Eating
Paula Red Kent County, Michigan, United States 1960s Firm white flesh; McIntosh mutation. Eating
Peasgood’s Nonsuch England, United Kingdom 1858 A very large yellowish-green apple, deepening to orange-yellow, flushed and striped red with some russet patches. Flesh is sweet and juicy. Good eating and superb for cooking. Large, hardy and heavy cropping tree. Apples can weigh up to half a kilogram, and are famously large enough to make a pie from a single apple. Cooking, Eating
Pink Pearl California, United States 1944 Noted for having bright pink flesh. Sweet. Possibly has crab apple in its ancestry. Eating
Pinova Germany 1986 Bred in Germany over an 18-year period. Marketed as “Piñata” in the United States. Fragrant smell, thin skin and balanced sweet and tart flavour profile. From Golden Delicious, Cox’s Orange Pippin, and Duchess of Oldenburg. Cooking, Eating
Pitmaston Pineapple Moseley, Worcester, United Kingdom 1785 Pitmaston Pineapple is a dessert apple known since 1785. Small oblong apples with a yellow-green russeted skin. Tender flesh is an intense nutty, honeyed flavour with, as the name suggests, tropical undertones and some balancing acidity. Trees are biennial but produce heavy crops in the ‘on’ year.
Pixie England, United Kingdom 1947 Resistant to scab and mildew. Very small apple. Eating
Porter’s U.S. Smallish, squat, deep golden yellow color with red blush and firm, white, fine-grained aromatic sweet flesh. Eating, Cooking or Cider.
Pott’s Seedling England, United Kingdom Pale green to yellow colour and white flesh. Cooking
Pound Sweet Manchester, Connecticut, United States 1834 Amber coloration. Used mostly for making apple butter. Russets. Does well in moderate cold. Suitable to areas with snowy winters. Cooking
Rajka Czech Republic Scab-resistant cross of Rezista x Rome Eating
Red Astrachan Russia 1800 (apx.) Extremely resistant to frost. Cooking
Red Delicious Iowa, United States 1870 (apx.) Unmistakable for its acutely conic shape, dark red colour and telltale bumps on bottom. Flavour is sweet and mild, bordering on bland. Poor choice for cooking or cider. Original seedling known as “Hawkeye.” Rights bought by Stark Brothers in 1893. First marketed as “Delicious” or “Stark’s Delicious,” name changed to “Red Delicious” in 1914 when Stark bought the rights to Mullin’s Yellow Seedling, changing that apple’s name to “Yellow Delicious”. Red Delicious has many sports and ranks as the world’s most prolific apple. Eating
Red Prince Weert, Netherlands 1994 Medium-sized, conic, uniform deep red skin. White flesh is crisp, sweet and juicy, with hints of cherry and almond. Excellent keeper. Chance seedling (a natural cross of Jonathan and Golden Delicious) discovered in 1994 in an orchard near Weert, Netherlands. Marketed throughout Europe, in 2001, Global Fruit in Thornberry, Ontario became exclusive growers of the variety in North America.[5] Eating, Cooking
Rev. W. Wilks England, United Kingdom 1908 Pastel green with a light pink flush. Very disease-resistant. Cooking
Rhode Island Greening Newport, Rhode Island, United States 1650s Extremely old variety for United States, second only to Roxbury Russet in age. Very tart. Grass-green colour with some possible russeting near stem. Very tart. Cider, Cooking
Ribston Pippin Knaresborough, North Yorkshire, United Kingdom 1708 An irregularly-shaped and sometimes lopsided apple, usually round to conical and flattened at the base with distinct ribbing. Skin is yellow with an orange blush and red streaked with russet dots. Yellow flesh is firm, fine-grained, and sweet with a pear-like flavour. The original Ribston Pippin sprouted in 1708 from one of three apple pips sent from Normandy to Sir Henry Goodricke of Ribston Hall at Knaresborough, North Yorkshire, England. The original tree stood until 1835. It then sent up a new shoot and, on the original roots, lived until 1928. Ribston Pippin is thought to be a parent of Cox’s Orange Pippin. Eating
Rome Beauty Rome, Ohio, United States 19th c. Rounded, deep red, and very glossy. Crisp, juicy white flesh is mild as a dessert apple, but develops an extraordinary depth and richness when cooked. Good keeper. Cooking
Rubens (Civni) Italy 1985 Sweet and crunchy; Gala × Elstar. Eating
Santana[6] Wageningen, Nederland, Europa 1978 Scab resistant. Eating.
Saturn Kent, United Kingdom, Europa 1980 Scab resistant. Eating.
Smokehouse Mill Creek, Pennsylvania, United States 1837 A medium to small apple. Greenish-yellow with flushed red-orange stripes. The yellowish-white flesh is crisp and tender with a spicy-sweet flavour that tastes like cider. Excellent all-purpose apple. Unusual in that it also makes excellent cider. Seedling discovered growing next to the smokehouse on William Gibbons’ farm in Mill Creek, PA. Bears fruit from young age. Eating, Cooking, Cider.
Snow apple (Fameuse) Quebec, Canada 17th c. Tender, aromatic, distinct flavour. A parent of McIntosh. Cider, cooking, eating
Sonya New Zealand 2000 Cross between a Red Delicious and Gala. Coppery coloration. Crisp. Eating
Spartan British Columbia, Canada 1926 Good all-purpose, medium sized apple. Has a bright red blush and may have background patches of greens and yellows. Popular across border in United States as well. Cooking, Eating
Stark Earliest United States 1938 Does nicely in fruit salads. Red striping on light background. Ripens in summer. Eating
Stayman United States 1866 Dullish red skin often covered with a light russet. Tart, wine-like flavour. Stores well. Particularly known for tangy cider. Cider, Cooking, Eating
Sturmer Pippin Sturmer, Essex, England, United Kingdom 1800 (apx.) A medium-sized, bright greenish-yellow apple with a reddish-brown blush, often on one face only. White-fleshed and crisp. One of the best English keeping apples, with proper storage Sturmer Pippin lasts 4 to 5 months. Flavour is sprightly, more sharp than sweet when first picked, but improves dramatically in storage, becoming sweeter and richer, while maintaining its crisp texture. This keeping ability made it ideal for long journeys, as such, it was brought to Australia where it is still widely grown. Parent of Granny Smith. Eating
St. Edmund’s Pippin Suffolk, England, United Kingdom 1870s Unusual in fact that it has scaly russet patches mixed with smooth. Has vanilla/pear taste. Usually a light yellow-green. Eating
Summerfree Italy 1998 Resistant to scab. Spreading habit with moderate vigour, fruit is large, average weight of 175 g, skin is smooth, ripens 1–2 days before Gala, good storage ability. Eating
Sunset England, United Kingdom 1918 Easy to grow. Has very similar flavour to Cox’s Orange Pippin. Won’t do well in heat. Eating
Sweet Sixteen Minnesota, United States 1973 Large fruit, some russeting near top. Moderately acidic taste. Eating
SweeTango Minnesota, United States 2009 Juicy and sweet, and viewed as a successor to the Honeycrisp by many growsers. Eating
Tolman Sweet United States 1822 Very sweet apple. Once used to make dried fruit for winter. Cider, Cooking
Tom Putt Trent, Somerset, England 18th c. Small to medium, flat and irregularly shaped apple. Green, usually covered entirely with a bright red blush. Crisp, sharp flavour. An excellent cooker and ideal single-variety cider apple. Softens during storage. Tree is vigorous and precocious. Scab-resistant. Seedling found by a Rev. Tom Putt of Trent, Somerset, England in the late 1700’s. Triploid. Cider, Cooking
Topaz Czech Republic 1990 Rubin x Vanda, scab-resistant, sharp flavour. Cider, Cooking, Eating
Twenty Ounce New York, United States 1840 Huge: apple weighs over one pound, or nearly 500 g. Green overlaid with broad red striping. Excellent cooker. Nice juice qualities. Cider, Cooking, Eating
Tydeman’s Early Worcester England, United Kingdom 1929 Mclntosh × Worcester Pearmain. Crimson over yellow background colour. Eating
Tydeman’s Late Orange England, United Kingdom 1930 Good storage qualities, but loses fragrance with age. Eating
Wagener New York, United States 1795 Antique American variety, known since Colonial times. Tree is scab-resistant. Green with red flush, crispy, subacid and sweet. Keeps very well. Very versatile in kitchen; not only does it cook well, but makes a good single-variety cider. Wagener is a parent of Idared, to which it imparts its keeping and cooking qualities. Cider, Cooking, Eating
Warner’s King Kent, England, United Kingdom 1700 (apx.) Oblong and light green. Very tart. Do not attempt to eat out of hand. Cooking
Westfield Seek-No-Further Westfield, Massachusetts, United States 18th c. A medium-sized conic to truncate-conic apple. Greenish-yellow, dull skin, flushed orange with carmine stripes, russet dots and patches. Shaded fruit are often irregularly russeted all over, with little color showing. Flesh is light buttery-yellow, firm but tender, and moderately fine-grained. Flavour is nicely balanced, a honey-like sweetness balanced with a lemon-like citric acidity, rich, notes of pear and vanilla. Vigorous grower, some disease resistance. Eating
Wealthy Minnesota, United States 1860 Cherry Red × Sops of Wine.Pretty reddish pink coat. Believed at one time Minnesota was too cold to grow apples until “Wealthy” was cultivated. Now a parent to many apples for resistance to temperatures below freezing. Still available in upper Midwest. Eating
White Transparent Russia 1870 Very pale green skin with an almost white flesh, it is very sharp in taste. Fruit bruises easily and goes soft once harvested. Cooking
Winesap United States 1817 Sweet with tangy finish. Reddish blush flecked with some green. Cider, Eating
Winston (Winter King) England, United Kingdom 1935 (apx.) Cox Orange × Worcester Pearmain. Originally called Winter King because of its extraordinary keeping ability, renamed during WWII for Prime Minister Winston Churchill.
Wolf River Wisconsin, United States 1881 Apple very large, some growing to size of large grapefruit. Red with yellow blush. Once very popular commercial apple in United States but presently relegated to upper Midwest if grown for profit. Occasionally can be found growing wild in backcountry thickets or abandoned land in Shenandoah Valley. Named for area where found. Feral trees can be brought back with care and pruning. Cooking, Eating
Worcester Pearmain Worcestershire, England, United Kingdom 1873 Crisp and sweet flavour when ripe. Best if eaten early in season (September). Eating

Cider apples

Cider apples may be far too sour or bitter for fresh eating, but are used for making cider. Some apples (especially older ones from the U.S. and Canada) are used for both cider and eating purposes.

Common name Origin First developed
Baldwin Wilmington, Massachusetts ca. 1740
Brown Snout Herefordshire, England ca. 1850
Dabinett Somerset, England late C19
Dymock Red Gloucestershire
Foxwhelp Gloucestershire, England ca. 1600
Hagloe Crab
Kingston Black Near Taunton, Somerset, England late C19
Redstreak Herefordshire, England ca. 1630
Roxbury Russet Massachusetts ca. 1640s
Stoke Red Rodney Stoke, Somerset, England early C20
Tremlett’s Bitter Exe Valley, U.K. ca. 1820
Vista Bella Rutgers University, (New Brunswick, New Jersey) 1944
Winesap USA ca. 1817
Yeovil Sour Yeovil, Somerset ca. 1824

Rootstock cultivars

Selection of rootstock cultivars can be difficult: vigorous roots tend to give trees that are healthy but grow too tall to be harvested easily without careful pruning, while dwarfing rootstocks result in small trees that are easy to harvest from, but are often shorter-lived and sometimes less healthy. Most modern commercial orchards use one of the “Malling series” (aka ‘M’ series), introduced or developed by the East Malling Research Station from the early 20th century onward. However, a great deal of work has been done recently introducing new rootstocks in Poland, the U.S. (Geneva), and other nations. The Polish rootstocks are often used where cold hardiness in needed. The Geneva series of rootstocks has been developed to resist important diseases such as fireblight and collar rot, as well as for high fruit productivity.

Written on May 3rd, 2012 , Fruits Tags:

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      07 June 2012 at 10:10

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